The Vienna Convention, which took place over 30 years ago, enabled international co-operation in researching the effects of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) on the ozone layer, and was the basis on which the Montreal Protocol was produced in September, 1987. At the time, twenty four countries and the European Economic Community signed the Protocol, which requires the reduction and eventual phasing out of CFCs and other ODSs, such as HCFCs.
In 1989, Article 5 of the Montreal Protocol was developed. This allowed developing countries to become part of the action against ozone depletion, by setting different, but attainable, targets for these countries to meet. Article 5 countries within the GCC include U.A.E., Qatar and Oman.
CFCs should now have been phased out by all countries that signed the Montreal Protocol. HCFCs have only been completely phased out by Non-Article 5 countries, but their complete phase out in Article 5 countries is imminent.
As such, many PIR insulation manufacturers in U.A.E., Qatar and Oman may have turned to HCFCs or HFCs as an interim blowing agent. However, this product has a high GWP and could impact negatively on climate change.
Following the recent 28th meeting in Rwanda in October 2016, the Montreal Protocol was amended to not only include Ozone Depleting Substances, but also substances deemed to have a high Global Warming Potential. This led to the subsequent agreement that HFCs would also be phased out under the Montreal Protocol.
The dates agreed are different for Article 5 and Non-article 5 countries, with Article 5 countries further being split into two groups. The U.A.E, Qatar and Oman have committed to creating a baseline between 2020 – 2022, with a freeze in 2024 and phase out by 2045.